How long does it take to charge an electric vehicle?

This is determined by several factors. Different vehicles have different battery pack sizes, the battery pack size determines the amount of energy stored in the vehicle. For this example we will continue to use the Tesla Model S - 90D with a 90kWh battery pack.  The other determining factor is the power option used for charging.  I will demonstrate using the most common charging option for residential use, the NEMA 14-5outlet.   This a 240-Volt outlet on a dedicated 50-Amp circuit.  The 14-50 outlet will provide 29 of miles of drivability with one hour of charging.  A four hour charge will provide over 100 miles of drivability.  The model X will provide 25 miles with the same electrical supply.  Tesla offers the option of of a high amp charger upgrade.  This also requires the Tesla Wall Connector be installed with up to a 240-Volt 100-Amp breaker.  This power package requires a more robust electrical supply than is common in some production housing.


90kWh battery divided by 9.6 kW supply from NEMA 14-50         = 10 hours full charge with NEMA 14-50 
90kWh battery divided by 1.4 kW supply from 110V cordset         = 64 hours full charge with level 1,  110 Volt cordset

*Your actual charge times will be less, since most drivers will not completely drain the battery.

What does it cost to charge an electric vehicle? 

To determine the estimated cost to fully charge a discharged battery, just multiply the vehicle battery capacity times the actual rate you are paying your utility company per kWh.  I will use the Tesla Model S - 90D  in this example.  The 90D has a 90 kWh battery.  The actual rates charged by APS (Arizona Public Service) are .06 per kWh for off peak service and .18 per kWh for peak service        ( rates effective May 2016 for Time Advantage Plan).  As you can see, peak rates are triple what off-peak rates are.  How and when you charge your electric vehicle affects your cost to charge:

          OFF PEAK  rate of $ .06 X 90 kwh   = $5.40 cost for a full tank of energy at off peak rate

          ON PEAK   rate of $ .18 X 90kWh    = $16.20   cost for a full tank of energy at peak rate

          The model S 90D is rated to get 294 miles per charge.  The cost per mile for off peak and peak rates is listed below:

          OFF PEAK charge cost of $5.40 divided by 294 per charge miles  = $.02 per mile energy cost

          ON PEAK  charge cost of $16.20 divided by 294 per charge miles  = $.06 per mile energy cost